1. Introduction
 2. Mission and objectives
 3. Strategy to meet the objectives
 4. Execution of Biotechnology Policy (in brief)
 5. Some important actions to be take immediately
Appendix 1:  Scope and opportunities of biotechnology
Appendix 2
List of educational and research universities/institutions in the State engaged in area of
biotechnology
Appendix 3
List of initially identified technologies for development an d their commercialization
Appendix 4
Proposed Government Incentives to Biotech Industry
Appendix 5
Estimated expenditure during 10th Five Year Plan and the Annual Expenditure for the
year 2002-2003
Appendix - 2A
Issues & concerns of the State in relation to biotechnology

 


1. INDUSTRIAL POLICY

Biotechnology has been defined in many forms but in essence implies the use of microbial, animal or plant cells or enzymes to synthesize, breakdown or transform material for production of goods and services to mankind. It is a multidisciplinary field of activities, which heavily relies on integration of Biology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Chemical Engineering, and Process Engineering, together with other disciplines, in a way that optimizes the exploitation of their potential. Biotechnology is not itself a product or range of products like Microelectronics, rather it is regarded as a range of enabling technologies which find significant applications in several sectors of applications.
By virtue of it’s being multidisciplinary in nature, scope and opportunities of Biotechnology are wide and varied in the areas of agriculture, industry, food and beverages, medical and health, and environment and energy. Sector-wise scope and opportunities of biotechnology are provided in Appendix 1.
The State of Uttar Pradesh is rich in biodiversity wealth rarely seen elsewhere. The large and diverse agriculture and plant resource base, the main raw material for biotechnology based industries, represent great market opportunity for biotechnology products and processes. The State also has multidisciplinary blend-up of excellent facilities and expertise. In the area of biotechnology, a number of premier institutions are already established in the State. The biotechnology policy, therefore, envisages utilization of all these resources for an over all development of the State. The list of premier institution of Uttar Pradesh is provided in Appendix 2. Some issues and concern of the state are provided at Appendix 2A.


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2. Mission and objectives

a. Mission
Provide impetus to economic and social upliftment of the State through promotion of biotechnology development and its simultaneous applications in the area of agriculture, industry, food and nutrition, health, environment and energy leading to meet challenges with respect to food security, poverty alleviation and employment generation specially in rural areas, and creation of eco-friendly environment.
b. Objectives

  • To establish pre-eminent position of the State in the area of biotechnology.
  • To create awareness about the new entrepreneurial and job opportunities in the area of Biotechnology.
  • To evolve single window facility as to meet regulatory requirements for setting up an industrial unit.
  • To outline a set of incentives and concessions for the Biotechnology industry to attract investment in the State.
  • To review and adopt environmentally safe regulatory mechanism for agriculture, health and eco system as a whole.
  • To develop and conserve bio-resource for sustainable commercial use.
  • To harness existing R & D capabilities in the State, simultaneously promoting application oriented knowledge base from corporate funding as to meet future challenges.
  • To develop adequate institutional and related infrastructure for technology development, acquisition, adoption and dissemination throughout the State.
  • To encourage application of informatics in frontier areas of biotechnological research such as genomics, proteomics, etc.
  • To establish Biotechnology Development Board in the State as to meet the aforesaid objectives.

 

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3. Strategy to meet the objectives

3.1 Biotechnology in development process
Biotechnology shall be integrated in development process in order to achieve sectoral approach of development as it addresses basic issues like food security, nutrition, health, energy, environment, rural development, etc. As a matter of policy a token grant of concerned user departments shall be earmarked for promoting research and development based technology transfer and related infrastructure while strengthening need based R&D.

3.2 Development of infrastructure

  1. Establishment of high powered Biotechnology Development Board under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary of the State with Secretary, Science and Technology (or Secretary, Department of Biotechnology) as its Member Secretary.
  2. Establishment of Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency (and/or Department of Biotechnology) as secretariat of the board in order to have effective linkages with Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India. The existing Biotechnology and Bioconversion Division of the Council may temporarily act as secretariat of the Board till permanent arrangement for the same is made. There also exists Biotechnology Development plan budget sub-head in the Council. The assets and liabilities of the division may ultimately be merged with the Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency(and/or Department of Biotechnology upgraded and strengthened as State Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency.
  3. To establish resource specific biotech parks/field stations in the State as part of technology/product/process specific networks of R&D institutions, farmers/users, NGOs/VOs, etc. for effective transfer of technology at grass root level in rural areas.
  4. To establish biotechnology city at Lucknow and Noida in order to provide opportunities for scientists, engineers, consultants, etc. looking for development of biotechnology based industries in the State. The city shall be cluster of activities promoting biotechnology development and its simultaneous applications in the State in institutional manner. Policy issues linked with safety regulations, development of standards and parameters for concessions and incentives to biotech industries, corporate trading and funding, technology, product and process specific market surveys and studies for forecasting future opportunities, development of expensive common facilities in the area of bioinformatics, proteomics and genomics, development and conservation of bio-resources technology development, acquisition, adoption and dissemination, promotion of R&D through corporate funding, facilities for developing, marketing and acquiring the technology, linkages with R&D institutions, users and user Departments, entrepreneurs and VOs/ NGOs, etc. shall be dealt through the premises of the Biotechnology City. Infact, it shall be the work place for execution of the overall aim of Biotechnology Development Board. List of initially identified technologies for their development and commercialisation are provided in Appendix 3.
  5. To establish Biotechnology Applications Centre as to provide R&D backup to development departments and users for effective transfer of new processes/ techniques time to time in the State, particularly in unorganised sector. Plant tissue culture, biofertilizers and bio-pesticides and embryo transfer technology are ready for immediate applications and therefore the aforesaid Centre shall focus these area in the beginning.


3.3 Thrust areas of activities

Following are some of the initially identified sector-wise thrust areas of activities and shall be considered in priority

• Agriculture and food security

  1. To increase productivity of agricultural crops by developing high yielding varieties
  2. To diversify agriculture from traditional cereal crops to horticultural and medicinal crops requiring less area of cultivation.
  3. To develop disease resistant and pest repellent crop varieties of oil seeds and pulses.
  4. To train officials and staff of the concerned development departments and users, engaged in extension or extension oriented activities, as to make them capable to take up new challenges which should emerged out with the application of modern methods of biotechnology.


• Sugar cane

  1. To develop early maturing sugar cane varieties of improved qualities with special
    reference to sugar recovery.
  2. To develop infrastructure for mass multiplication of improved sugar cane varieties in
    organized manner.
  3. To train the manpower engaged in extension or extension oriented activities as to carry new packages to grass root level developed by modern methods of biotechnology and also strengthen infrastructure prevailing with them

• Animal husbandry

  1. To improve mile producing animals using embryo transfer technology.
  2. To develop quality of milk based dairy products.
  3. To develop microbial process for whey utilization for producing value added products.
  4. To train the manpower engaged in extension or extension oriented activities as to carry new packages to grass root level developed by modern methods of biotechnology, and also strengthen infrastructure prevailing with them.

• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides

  1. Chemical fertilizer are harmful to naturally occurring biological flora and therefore
    promotion of bio fertilizers applications.
  2. Development of integrated nutrient management packages using bio fertilizers together with green manures and chemical fertilizers.
  3. To develop industrially attractive technology for production of bio fertilizers like Aztobacters, Rhizobium, microbial phosphate solubilizers, nutrient accelerators, blue
    green algae, Azospirillum, etc. as to make their availability in uniform quality to
    formers/users.
  4. To promote use of biopesticides as chemical pesticides are non specific and therefore cause adverse effect on untargeted flora and fauna.
  5. To develop technology for production of biological pesticides using molasses and
    agricultural residues.
  6. To develop application practices of biological pesticides along with other agronomical practices, and mechanical and physical methods in pest control.
  7. To develop awareness among the farmers about the harms of the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and their utility to use them along with biofertilizers and biopesticides.

• Alcohol as transport fuel

  1. Development of yeast strains more tolerant to alcohol and molasses concentrations.
  2. To develop technology for continuous culture for production of alcohol under negative pressure.
  3. Any other means which may contribute favoruable energy balance for production of
    alcohol making possible to use it as transport fuel.

• Energy and environment

  1. Promotion of low energy requiring solid state fermentation for production of enzymes like amylases, proteases, pectinases, etc.
  2. Promotion of mushroom production by solid state fermentation using lingnocellulosic
    residues of agricultural crops.
  3. To recycle refuse of mushroom unit by vermicomposting, which may further be utilized for mulberry cultivation and promotion of sericulture.
  4. To promote phytoremediation with special reference to thermal power plants.
  5. To assess effect of global warming on vegetation as a result of ozone layer depletion.

• Industry and medical & health

  1. To develop bioprocess engineering aspects in order to take up challenges which should emerge out by using modern methods of biotechnology for developing biological agents.
  2. To promote development of bioinstrumentation.
  3. To develop monoclonal antibodies based diagnostic kits specially for chronic and racial diseases.
  4. To promote bioutilization/biorecycling/bioconversion of available agricultural residues
    and waste of related industries.
  5. To promote production of medicinally important natural products by using methods of fermentation specially linked with biological agents developed by using genetic
    engineering.
  6. To develop technology for enhanced production of proteases used in genetic engineering for their use in food, detergents and leather industries.

• Rural development

Infrastructure prevailing with development departments like agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, sericulture, rural development, cooperative etc. needs strengthening in order to take newer challenges, in relation to biotechnology for facilitating sustained availability of biotechnologically improved bioresource at desired price, for which natural resource bioparks may require to be established as a part of developing technology/ process/ product specific information networks.

It may also require human resource development engaged with these departments and
therefore regular training to new practices are necessary to organize.

3.4 Incentives to promote biotech industry

Following are some of the initially identified areas/factors for providing special
concessions and incentives to promote biotech industry in the State.

  • Selected operations in the areas of agriculture and allied sector, in which improved
    quality of seeds, seedlings or any other form of genetic material(s) developed by using techniques of genetic engineering and require organized seed farming with commercial potential, maintenance/adoption for sometime under semi controlled conditions before supply and use, or their fast multiplication/micro-propagation using tissue culture techniques can be considered to be given status of industry with special reference to consider incentives and concessions applied to biotechnological industry.T
  • The biotechnological processes posses three component central core, in which one part is concerned with the development of good quality biological agents; the second part creates the best suitable environment for its growth; and the third part is concerned with recovery of the product. It is always not necessary that one part only dominates the cost of a product or process. The operations controlling cost of a process may be considered for special concessions.
  • Energy conservation in alcohol industry by using improved bioprocess or biological agent may be given due attention with special reference to use alcohol as transport fuel can be considered for incentives and concessions. Similarly, low energy requiring solid state fermentation for waste treatment, mushroom cultivation, commercial enzyme(s) production, SCP production, vermiculture and biocomposting can also be given due attention. Biological waste treatment of industrial or municipal waste coupled with methane generation is another important concern considered for special attention. It is believed that biological waste treatment will emerge out as the largest biotechnological industry in the State.
  • Biotechnological research requires expensive biochemicals and biological agents not only in the development of genetically engineered microbial, animal or plant cells, but also require high grade carriers specially designed for separation of biomolecules in down stream processing, specially in the area of medically important enzyme for human use. Efforts shall be made to develop such industry in the State, which are expected to have very high export potential with simultaneously developing biotechnological research and industry in the State. Such industries can also be considered for providing incentives.
  • Efforts shall also be made to develop consultants, machine manufactures and practicing engineers with special reference to develop bio-reactors suitable to genetically engineered cells and also down stream processing operations specially needed for high purity biomolecules, by giving some kind of incentives.
  • There are other governing factors which may be considered for providing special
    incentives and concessions for promoting biotechnology industry. These may include:
    Quality of the product, Investment and funds involved, Employment and entrepreneurial opportunities in rural areas, Comparative advantages over existing alternatives, Safety and environment, Energy conservation, Export-import balance, Domestic need and need for location specific raw material development for secondary processing.
  • Biotechnology in rural development has very important role to play. There are many
    processes pertaining to productions of mushroom, biofertilizers, single cell protein,
    biopesticides and floriculture, just to name few of them which can easily be adopted as village industries. For this purpose product are process specific technology information networks comprising all concerns from research and development institutions, development departments, NGOs/VOs, etc. shall be promoted in the State. The networks shall be helpful in providing modern methods of management with respect to raw material, product, funds, S&T, market etc., which individuals in unorganised sector can not expect. If required, technical backup unit shall also be established.
  • Promotion of R&D through corporate funding for developing novel biological agents
    using methods of genetic engineering, design and development of suitable bioreactor and related instrumentation for their mass multiplication, and separation of high value medically important biological product requiring high purity shall also be considered for special incentives and concessions.

Suitable guidelines and standards for the aforesaid governing factors for providing incentives and concessions shall be developed and announced time to time as a matter of policy. However, some of the concessions initially identified by the Department of Industry are listed in Appendix 4.

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4. Execution of Biotechnology Policy (in brief)

The Biotechnology Development Board constituted under the Chairmanship of Chief Secretary of the State shall be responsible for overall execution of Uttar Pradesh Biotechnology Development Policy. The Board shall meet once in a year and review effective implementation of the Biotechnology Policy. If required the Board may direct to adopt desired policy majors. The concessions and incentives provided by the other departments in the area of biotechnology can also be reviewed by the Board but with the recommendation of the concerned department.

The State Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency (and/or Department of Science and Technology and Department of Biotechnology) shall act as Secretariat of the Board. The Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency shall have Executive Director. The Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency shall have Executive Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Department of Science and Technology (and/or Department of Biotechnology). The Executive Director of the Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency act as Member Convener. The Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency shall have four components viz. (i) Planning, Coordination and Programme Development Division, (ii) Research and Development Division, (iii) Bio safety and Regulatory Control, and Industrial Project Evaluation and Implementation Division, (iv) General Administration and Finance Division. Each of these Division shall be headed by a Director. Existing Biotechnology and Bioconversion Division of the Council may temporarily act as secretariat of the Board till a permanent arrangement is made. The assets and liabilities of the division created under the Biotechnology Development plan budget sub-head may ultimately be merged with the board once the permanent arrangement is made.

There shall also be Advisory Committee of the Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency under the Chairmanship of a scientists/technologist of eminence in the area of Biotechnology as to advise in matters related to evaluation and monitoring of R&D projects, identification of priority areas of working, guidelines for processing different schemes/programmes and also advising on matters related to regulatory controls and standards. Director of the Planning, Coordination and Programme Development Division shall be the Member Convener of the Advisory Committee. Executive Director of the Council shall be the Vice Chairman of the Advisory Committee.

In order to execute the biotechnology policy, it is estimated to incur expenditure of about 4500 lakhs during 10th Five Year Plan, of which 450 lakhs during the year 2002-2003. Details are provided in Appendix 5. It may be added here that the State Government has already allocated a total sum of Rs. 450 lakh towards biotechnology development and application for the year 2002-2003.

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5. Some important actions to be take immediately

  1. Constitution of Biotechnology Development Board.
  2. Establishment of Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency.
  3. Creation of Department of Biotechnology.
  4. Establishment of Biotechnology City at Lucknow.
  5. Establishment of Biotechnology Applications Centre and its field units.
  6. Constitution of Executive Committee and Scientific Advisory Committee for Biotechnology Development Cell/Agency.

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Appendix 1

Scope and opportunities of biotechnology

S. No. Sector of application Scope and opportunities
1. Agriculture and allied sector
Development of disease resistant & pest repellent high yielding plant & crop varieties, high breed animals of improved genetic character, fast multiplication of improved genetic material of uniform quality, production of biofertilizers and biopesticides
2. Industry sector Production of organic acids, organic solvents, fine chemicals, enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc.
3. Food and Beverages Production of fermented foods and drinks, single cell protein, sweeteners, flavors and flavor enhancers, dairy products, food enzymes, mushroom, etc.
4. Medical and health Production of vaccines, immobilized enzyme based biosensors, monoclonal antibodies based diagnostic kits, growth hormones, etc.
5. Environment and energy
Treatment of industrial and municipal waste water, methane from agrobased or organic content rich industrial wastes, biological hydrogen, alcohol as fuel, development of suitable plant as environment protector, etc.

 

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Appendix 2

List of educational and research universities/institutions in the State engaged in area of
biotechnology

* Central/State Universities and Institutions


1. BHU, Varanasi
2. AMU, Aligarh HBTI, Kanpur
3. IIT, Kanpur
4. Roorkee University, Roorkee
5. G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar
6. N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad
7. CSA University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
8. SGPGI, Lucknow


* CSIR Institutions


1. NBRI, Lucknow
2. CIMAP, Lucknow
3. CDRI, Lucknow
4. ITRC, Lucknow


* ICAR Institutions


1. Indian Sugarcane Research Institute, Lucknow
2. Central Institute for Subtropical Research, Lucknow
3. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow

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Appendix 3


List of initially identified technologies for development an d their commercialization

  1. Kits for diagnosis of malaria and tuberculosis, and vaccines for cholera and leprosy of CDRI, Lucknow.
  2. ELISA based methods for detection of the pesticides and PCR based methods for detection of pathogens in water and food materials of ITRC, Lucknow.
  3. Dehydration technology for flowers and foliage, protocol for mass multiplication of Musa paradise (banana) and Cavendish (Basrai) and micropropogation of lime and sweet oranges using plant tissue culture, and rapid cloning techniques of male and female papaya fruits of NBRI, Lucknow.
  4. Mass promotion of improved crop varieties of mentha (Kosi and Himalaya) and Jeven raksha (Artemisa annua) and promoting commercialization of the process technologies like Taxol, Arteether, Citral, rose oil, Vetiver oil, Pyrenthrum, and natural products using hairy root culture developed by CIMAP, Lucknow.
  5. Technology for micropropogation of mango, guava, litchi and papaya developed by CISH, Lucknow.
  6. Technology for cryopreservation of fish sperm atozoa and genetic markers for Indian major carps developed by NBFGR, Lucknow.
  7. Rapid DNA based methods for the antenatal diagnosis of muscular dystrophy developed by SGPGI, Lucknow.
  8. BGA biofertilizer technology developed by CSTUP, Lucknow.
  9. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus, and beds for paraplegics and shoes to prevent pressure sores in leptrotic foot using transducer devices developed by KGMC, Lucknow.
  10. Antiviral agents from a few non host plants and transgenic plants like tomato and tobacco respectively developed by Biochemistry Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow.

 

Appendix 4

Proposed Government Incentives to Biotech Industry


1. Taxation on biotechnology products
In order to provide the competitive edge as well as to help in establishing new ventures and new biotechnology units will not be taxed for the first five years. The Government of Uttar Pradesh will however honour the decision of the empowered Committee of State Finance Ministry on Tax requirement constituted by Ministry of Finance, Government of India.

2. Fiscal incentives
All inputs as well as capital goods, including captive generation sets, during the implementation stage will be exempted from the payment of entry tax, which can be up to 7 years or during the construction period whichever is earlier.

3. Captive generation
Captive generation sets to be installed by biotech-industry will be eligible for exemption of electricity tax for a period of seven years.

4. Pollution control
Biotechnology units must fulfill the required norms regarding pollution control depending on its specific nature. The State Pollution Control Board will act as a facilitator in guiding these units to conform to the relevant rules and regulations. It will also act as a single window agency to co-ordinate the approval process.

5. Uninterrupted power
The State Government is aware of necessity of uninterrupted and quality power supply as one of the prime requirements for sustainable growth of biotech-industry. These industries will be given top priority in sanction and servicing of power. Biotechnology companies will be treated as industrial and not as commercial consumer and accordingly electricity tariff will be levied on such companies.

6. Relaxation in zonal regulations
For registered Biotechnology units within declared Biotechnology Park/Industries area, relaxation of FAR to the extent of 50% of the prevailing norms shall be given. In other areas (excluding core, green, heritage areas) relaxation up to 25% could be considered depending on the merit of the case after considering population density, infrastructure availability, environment aspect etc.

7. Biotechnology city - Lucknow
In order to provide all infrastructural and common facilities, the State Government (in the initial phase) has decided to set up Biotechnology Park / City at Lucknow. These technology park will be state of art park and will be developed in scientifically designed manner. These parks will extend world class service to its clientele and will be one stop ship in term of infrastructure, skilled manpower and quality services at competitive cost. Basic facilities of the City premises to be created in beginning are under:-

  • Auction/Procurement Centre for Biotechnology based products.
  • Facility for on line trading.
  • Cold storage facility for perishable products.
  • Facilities for Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics.
  • Facilities for converting research into working system.
  • Facilities for Technology Information, assessment & forecasting.
  • Consultancy for bio-technology based industries
  • Exhibition Hall.
  • Technology Applications Centre.


The following consessions will be offered to the biotechnology park:

  1. Exemption on payment of entry tax on machinery/equipment/capital goods and construction materials, for a period of 7 years or till the date of completion of the project, whichever is earlier on the condition that each invoice should not be less than Rs.25 lakhs or Rs. 10.00 lakhs in case of construction materials.
  2. Up to 50% exemption from the payment of stamp duty and registration charges.
  3. In case of first lease as well as subsequent lease to biotechnology companies, concessions will be available for biotechnology parks certified by the Department of Science & Technology.


8. Mega projects
The mega project will be one which will have investment of more than Rs.50 crores in a new company or in the expansion of an existing company or which will provide employment to 250 in Lucknow or to 100 in any other city of Uttar Pradesh. The mega project will be offered a special package of concessions including concessions already mentioned above. They will be offered 50% concession on stamp duty and registration charges for first sale and first lease.

9. Simplified labour laws
The labour laws will be simplified so as to enable employment of women during the evening hours.

10. Concession for creating employment
Expansion, diversification and modernization of existing small scale industries would get a concession on registration charges. These companies will have to pay nominal stamp duties on lease/cum-sale duties executed with State Government agencies. Even when absolute sale deeds are executed, the stamp duty depends on consideration amount agreed upon at the time of leasing. This concession will also be applicable for companies in Biotechnology sector.

11. Prov ision of cluster development fund/venture capital
The Government of Uttar Pradesh will encourage setting up of cluster development fund and venture capital fund for biotech industries with private companies with their own manufacturing, marketing and distribution networks so that greater number of projects may be funded at the subsequent stage in the innovation cycle.

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Appendix 5

Estimated expenditure during 10th Five Year Plan and the Annual Expenditure for the year 2002-2003


While promoting biotechnology development and its simultaneous application in the State with special reference to promote poverty alleviation, employment generation, rural development, favourable export-import balance, foreign investment and capabilities
development to accept challenges in frontier areas of biotechnology, the Xth Five Year Plan outlay of Rs. 4500 Lakh is proposed, out of which Rs. 450 Lakh for the Annual Plan 2002- 03. Activity-wise description is provided as under:

1. R&D activities
Under the sub head relevant R&D projects from Technical Institutions/ Organizationd/ Laboratories/ Universities/ Agricultural Universities/ Medical Colleges existing in the State shall be given financial support. Infrastructure development as to promote research shall also be supported on project basis. Financial support to organize seminars/symposiums/workshops in selected areas shall also be supported under the sub
head. Restricted partial foreign travels may also be supported with special reference to develop manpower in selected areas. A total sum of Rs. 350.00 Lakh is proposed as outlay for the Xth Five Year Plan. Out of which Rs. 50.00 Lakh is towards Annual Plan 2002-03.

2. Centres of excellence
Under the sub head five centres of excellence in frontiers of biotechnology, one each at SVBPUA&T, Meerut in the area of Agriculture; SGPGI, Lucknow in the area of Medical and Health; HBTI, Kanpur in the area Industry; DDUU of Veternary Sciences, Mathura in the area of Animal Husbandry, and RML University of Faizabad in the area of Environment are proposed to be established during Vth Five Year Plan. Under the sub head Xth Plan outlay of Rs. 250.00 Lakh is proposed; out of which Rs. 50.00 Lakh is for the Annual Plan of 2002-03.

3. Technology transfer activities
Under the sub head extension oriented technology transfer programmes/ projects from R&D institutions/universities/NGOs/VOs having little R&D shall be given financial support. Ministerial support as to promote self sustainable establishment of technology/ process/ product specific information networks shall also be extended. Financial support shall also be extended to establish demonstration and training facilities with special reference to rural development shall also be extended to a limited extent. Under the sub head Xth Plan out lay of Rs. 300.00 Lakh is proposed, of which Rs. 50.00 Lakh is for the Annual Plan outlay 2002-03.

4. Biotechnology Applications Centre
In order to promote R&D based technology transfer in the area of biofertilizers, plant tissue culture, embryo transfer technology and medicinal & aromatic plants proposed to be taken in the beginning the Biotechnology Applications Centre is proposed to be established at Lucknow. The Centre shall cater the need for providing technical backup, organizing demonstration and training for developing manpower, desired natural resource etc. to the technology users. It shall be part of mechanism to promote technology information networks having good linkages with development departments/users. A total sum of Rs. 600.00 Lakh is proposed as Xth Plan outlay, of which Rs. 100.00 Lakh is for Annual Plan 2002-03.

5. Biotechnology city
In order to promote biotechnology based industries in the state, biotechnology city, one each at Lucknow and Noida, are proposed to be established jointly with UPSIDC with partial financial support from Govt. of India. It is expected that the proposed biotechnology cities shall provide opportunity for scientists, engineers, consultants and entrepreneurs looking for the development of biotechnology industries in the State. A total sum of Rs. 3000.00 Lakh is proposed as Xth Plan outlay, of which Rs. 200.00 Lakh is for Annual Plan 2002-03.

Thus, the Xth Five Year Plan outlay of Rs. 4500.00 Lakh is proposed; of which Rs. 450.00 Lakh is towards the Annual Plan 2002-03. Item wise details are provided in Table I.

Table I: Proposed Xth Five Year Plan Outlay and Annual Plan 2002-03

S. No.
Item
Proposed outlay for Xth Five Year Plan 2002-07
Proposed outlay for Annual Plan 2002-03
1.
R&D activities
350.00
50.00
2.
Centers of excellence
250.00
50.00
3.
Technology transfer activities
300.00
50.00
4.
Biotechnology Applications Centre
600.00
100.00
5.
Biotechnology city
3000.00
200.00
Total
4500.00
450.00

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Appendix 2A

Issues & concerns of the State in relation to biotechnology


Agricultural concerns

  • State of Uttar Pradesh is the most populous State. It accounts for 16% population of India. In terms of area, it encompasses about 9% total area of the country. Thus, the development of the State will have determining impact in over all development of the country.
  • Agriculture shares 40% economy of the State. About 75% of the total working force is engaged in agriculture and allied sector. Being it the most populous, average size land holding in the State is 0.9 ha, comprising 90% farmers with 55% of the total land holding are in small and marginal categories.
  • Carefully selected region specific organized farming of the horticultural crops, and
    medicinal and aromatic plants of improved varieties for productivity and value addition, often requiring less cultivation area, is inevitable for the State.

    This will also ensure development of related process industries in rural areas, further
    improving socio -economic regional imbalance in the State.


Food security concerns

  • Food security is another serious concern of the State. It is targeted to increase food production in the State, from its present level 41.8 million ton in the year 1997-98 to 70.20 million ton by the year 2007.
  • The average productivity of most of the cereal crops like rice, wheat, pulses and oil
    seeds, is far less as compared to the leading states.
  • For examples, productivity of rice in 21 Q/ha as compared to Punjab (34 Q/ha),
    Tamilnadu (33 Q/ha), Haryana (28 Q/ha) and Andhra Pradesh (26 Q/ha).
  • Productivity of wheat in the State is 26.59 Q/ha as compared to Punjab (41 W/ha) and Haryana (37 Q/ha).
  • Productivity of pulses in the State is 8.6 Q/ha as compared to Haryana (11 Q/ha) and Punjab (9 Q/ha).
  • Productivity of oil seeds in the State is 8.4 Q/ha as compared to Tamilnadu (14 Q/ha), Haryana (14 Q/ha), Punjab (13 Q/ha) and Gujrat (12 Q/ha).

Thus, increased productivity of these major cereal crops is inevitable to meet the future target of the food grain. Biotechnology offers unique opportunity to develop high yielding varieties of these crops, particularly decease resistant crop varieties of oil seeds and pulses.

Sugarcane and related concerns

  • State of U.P. covers 50% (2.1 million ha of the total cropped area of the country under sugar cane covering about 40% of the total production. But its share in matter of immediate concern.
  • The main reason of lower sugar recovery is attributed to poor crop varieties. Use of
    early maturing varieties of sugarcane are of immediate concern to the State.
  • Biotechnology can play important role in development of improved sugarcane crop varieties and also in their mass multiplication. However, it will require strong technical backup at state and regional level. Improved sugar recovery can double the efficiency of sugar industry in the State.
  • The another related issue is the poor yield of sugarcane itself. The average productivity of sugar can in the State is 600 Q/ha as compared to 1139,962 and 855 Q/ha in Thailand, Karnataka and Maharastra respectively.


Live stock and related concerns

  • The State of U.P. has the largest livestock population in the country and is also the
    largest milk producing State, but majority of milk producing animals in the State are not very productive because of inadequate nutrition and limited genetic potential.
  • This sector provides employment of 25% of the labour force, mainly to women, and
    therefore requires due attention. Embryo Transfer Technology can improve the limited genetic character of desired quality without any influence of host in a fast manner.
  • Any improvement in this sector can change over all economic scenario of women in the State it may be added that there are 152 milk processing plants and dairies in the State having total processing capacity of 3.196 million litres every day.


Biotechnology has to play importan t role in improvement of livestock and also development of milk based other dairy products. Cheese, a dairy product, has world of market of about 14000 million pound.

Concerns related to chemical pesticides

  • There is no exact assessment, but it is generally believed that about 35% loss in food production occurs every year due to weeds, disease, insects and pasts, it is therefore, the application of pesticides for more productivity is bound to increase in order to met food requirement of growing population pressure.
  • Synthetic pesticides consists of chemicals like chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, etc are hazardous not only to users, but their repeated use causes destructive effects to beneficial naturally occurring biological processes like pollination, nitrification, degradation of organic materials is a matter of serious concern. Chemicals pesticides are non-specific and therefore causes adverse affects on untargeted flora and fauna.
  • Alternatively use of biopesticides are specific in nature and cause no side effects to
    other naturally occurring biological processes and phenomena.
  • It is therefore development of biological pesticides and their production using molasses and their use along with other means like agronomical practices, and mechanical and physical methods in pest control with simultaneous awareness and training to farmers deserves due attention.


Concern related to chemical fertilizers

  • Chemical fertilizers are harmful to naturally occurring biological processes. Due to increased use in heavy doses of chemical fertilizers as to achieve food grain target by using fullest potential of high yielding varieties of agricultural crops soil fertility has already reached to a threshold level making sustainable agriculture a serious concern to scientists, policy makers and also to farmers.
  • Biofertilizers like blue green algae and azolla to paddy, azotobactor and azospirillum for wheat, rhizobium for pulses are well known. But their use is highly restricted due to limited availability, adequate awareness and training.
  • The existing production methods applied in India are also questionable, in particular reference to their quality, development of adequate processes for their large scale production calls for immediate attention.
  • The existing production methods applied in India are also questionable in particular reference to their quality. Development of adequate processes for their large scale production calls for immediate attention.
  • Green manures, organic composts and biofertilizer altogether can solve the vital question of sustainable agriculture with little efforts. Blue green algae which can minimize gypsum requirement in Usar soil reclamation by 50 to 60% is the main concern of the State in land management: State of U.P. Is targeting to cover about 2 to 3 million ha waste and fallow land.

Nitrogen fixing organisms are considered to fix about 175 million tone of nitrogen each year, equivalent to about 80% of the world total supply the remaining 20% is derived from synthetic chemical fertilizers.

Concerns related to alcohol as transport fuel

  • Gasohol is no more e dream now. Alcohol mixed with petrol is already in use in Brazil, Thailand and USA. Lower titer value of alcohol in fermented broth makes distillation energy balance unfaourable as for al its use as fuel in concerned.
  • Titer value in most of the existing alcohol industries in the State and in the Country is about 6 to 8%
  • The lower titer value cast more distillation energy per molecule of alcohol production than it can deliver, is the moat Important limiting factor for using alcohol as fuel. Development of yeast strains more tolerant to alcohol and molasses concentration and their use in continuous culture under negative pressure can make the energy balance favourable to use alcohol as fuel, and therefore demands immediate attention.

There are yeast strains known to with stand as high as 20%. alcohol concentration. "Sake ” beer in Japan is one of the example s, which contains 20%. alcohol

Concern related to low energy requiring solid stat e fermentation

  • Low energy requirement of solid state fermentation Is of obvious interest for production of enzymes like amylases, proteases. pectinases. etc.
  • Production of mushroom by solid state fermentation using lingnocellulosic residues of agricultural cereal produce is a total biotechnology industry requires due attention.
  • Refuse of mushroom unit can further be recycled by vermicomposting; Vermicompost is very useful for mulberry cultivation and in promotion of sericulture

Why should a biotechnology policy?

  • Mentioned before are only some issues and concerns, and many more Should follow,
    which can be addressed through biotechnology However, it will require region specific sectoral planning and its effective execution, as may be in any other case.
  • But unlike to any other technology and related industrial sector often dealing with consumer goods, biotechnology deals with basic issues may it be food security for growing population, nutrition, health, environment, energy, poverty alleviation and employment generation, or rural development, and therefore demands special concession. II is this very reason which necessitates need for Biotechnology Policy in the State.
  • Biotechnology has another unique feature that it lakes care of process and product as well as raw material for it. The most of raw materials are derived from biological sources which utilize solar energy using photosynthesis. These raw materials ere ultimately converted into product(s). Thus, Biotechnology provides the best way to
    transform energy into materials and again into energy keeping ecological balance favourable to all and every life forms.

What could be the possible objectives of the biotechnology policy?

  • To acquire self sufficiency in the area of Biotechnology as to establish pre eminent position of the State in this area.
  • To create awareness about the new entrepreneurial Opportunities in the area of Biotechnology.
  • To evolve single window facility as 10 meet regulatory requirements for setting up an industrial unit.
  • To harness existing R & D capabilities in the Stele, simultaneously promoting application oriented knowledge based from corporate funding as to meet future challenges.
  • To outline a set of Incentives and concessions for the Biotechnology Industry to attract investment in the State.
  • To review and adopt environmentally safe regulatory mechanism for agriculture, health and eco-system as a whole.
  • To develop adequate institutional and related Infrastructure for technology development, acquisition, adoption and dissemination throughout the State.
  • To encourage application of informatics in frontier areas of biotechnological research such as genomics, proteomics, etc., and also in establishing product. process or technology specific Information Networks at grass root level.
  • To establish Biotechnology Development Board in the State as to meet the aforesaid Objectives.


Suggested strategies to meet the challenges.
Development of adequate infrastructure .

  1. Establishment of high powered biotechnology development board
  2. Establishment of State Council / Department of Biotechnology as secretariat of the
    board (Planning, coordination and programme development; Research end development; Biosafety and regulatory control; and Industrial project evaluation and implementation)
  3. Institute(s) of research and applications (cluster of technology/process/product specific application centres for technology development, acquisition, adoption and dissemination of knowledge).
  • Supporting agricultural operations as biotech Industry
  • elected operations in the areas of agriculture and allied sector, in which improved quality of seecs seedlings or any other form of genetic material(s) developed by using ted1niques of genetic engineering and require organized seed fanning with commercial potential, maintenance/adoption for sometime under semi controlled conditions before supply and use, or their fast multiplication/micro-propagation using tissue culture techniques shall be given status of industry with special reference to consider incentives and concessions applied to biotechnological industry.

    Suggested strategies contd…..

  • Cost dominating unit operations call for special incentives

    The Biotechnological processes possess three-component central core, in which one pan is concerned with the development of good quality biological agent; the second pan creates the best suitable environment for its growth; and the third pan is concerned with recovery of the product.

    It is not always necessary that any one part only dominates the cost of a product or process for examples, third part pertaining to down stream processing for production of high purity products) for human use open requiring separation using bio membranes and/or high grade chromatographic carriers/methods may dominate the cost of biological process or product.

    Some time second part pertaining to provide the best suitable environment for growth, as in case of aerobic fermentation of antibiotics, vitamins, organic acids, etc often requiring high energy for mixing of air uniformly aseptically during fermentation where thousands of gallons liquid is required to be handled dominates the cost of product The part pertaining to the development of biological agents becomes cost controlling operation when techniques of genetic engineering often requiring time and money, and expensive chemicals are required to apply.

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